Computer Software

Linux on Samsung Galaxy

Linux on Samsung Galaxy

Linux on GalaxySamsung has decided to use Linux on some of their Galaxy phones, I found an interesting articles on the Liliputing.com website about Linux on Galaxy and I have re-published it below for your convenience:

Samsung’s Linux on Galaxy software will bring full-fledged Ubuntu desktop to your phone (with an external display)

Samsung’s DeX dock lets you connect one of the company’s recent phones to an external display, mouse, and keyboard to use your phone like a desktop PC… assuming you’re comfortable with a desktop PC that runs Android.

But soon you may also be able to use your Android phone as a Linux PC. Samsung recently unveiled plans for “Linux on Galaxy,” promising that you’d be able to run a full-fledged Linux environment on a phone hooked up to a DeX dock.

Now the company has released a brief video that provides more details. One of those details? At least one of the Linux environments in question seems to be Ubuntu 16.04.

In the video, we see someone dock their phone, choose the “Linux on Galaxy” option from the desktop, and then choose Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. While that’s the only option shown, the fact that it does seem to be an option suggests you may be able to run different Linux environments as well.

Once Ubuntu is loaded, the video shows a user opening Eclipse, an integrated development environment that’s used to create Java (and Android apps). In other words, you can develop apps for Android phones with ARM-based processors on an Android phone with an ARM-based processor.

While Samsung seems to be showing off the developer-friendly features of Linux on Galaxy right now, theoretically non-developers could use the Linux environment to run desktop apps rather than Android apps when a phone is docked. For instance, this could open the door to desktop versions of Chrome, Firefox, LibreOffice, GIMP, or other popular GNU/Linux applications… although it’s worth noting that Samsung hasn’t shown any of those programs working yet, so it’s not clear how easy it would be to install them or how well they would run.

 

References

Here is a Demo of Samsung’s Linux on Galaxy

Samsung’s phone-as-desktop concept now runs Linux – Engadget

Linux Distros On Smartphone: The First “Linux On Galaxy” Demo Is Here

 

Incoming search terms:

  • samsung galaxy book linux
  • linux on galaxy

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Posted by Mario1 - 23/11/2017 at 2:08 pm

Categories: Applications, Linux Sofware   Tags:

Best Antivirus for Linux

Antivirus for Linux.

Linux AntivirusSome people think that Linux users don’t need antivirus software. It is true that Linux is safer than Windows  in the security space, but  an antivirus software is a must for any computer. With the so many malware and viruses around, it is essential to have maximum protection.

I noticed recently an article that presents the Top 10 Best Linux Antivirus and I have re-published it below for your convenience.

 

Best Linux Antivirus: Top 10 Reviewed and Compared

 

In the world of computer Operating System, there is always errors and problems especially intentionally made errors which we call trojan, malware, virus. Linux OS is much more efficient and secure OS but still, there are possibilities to have these problems. To decreasing this issues, security specialist has developed Linux antivirus to detect and remove those threats before they harm the system.

Best Linux Antivirus: Top 10

In online, you can find lots of different antivirus suggestion but recently an independent IT security institute AV-Test took over test for assuring real Linux antivirus software list, that helps us to make an effective generic list of top 10 best antiviruses for Linux.

1. Sophos

In the AV-Test, Sophos is one of the best free antiviruses for Linux. It does not only support on-demand scanning but also provide real-time scanning feature. This particular Linux antivirus not only prevents Linux base malware but also works fine on all the major platforms like windows, android. It detects worms and trojans as well and helps to remove from the repository. But if you are kinda geeky Sophos provide you terminal coding facility to make it easier.

Features

  • Free
  • Terminal base and GUI support
  • Detect and remove threats
  • Works for worms, trojan, virus and for malware
  • Lightweight and easy to use and install
  • Cross-platform support
  • Block and remove non-Linux threats

2. Comodo

Comodo is another best antivirus software for Linux. It is well known for its special architecture support and cross-platform feature. It also supports email scanning feature with additional anti-virus protection system which is not really available on other application. Comodo supports windows firewall feature with 32-bit and 64-bit architecture. Comodo Antivirus for Linux also supports all distros so it really widely uses among Linux users. The best of this software is it also works on server side like Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server, OpenSUSE, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.

Features

  • Free
  • Easy to use and install
  • On-demand scanning with no false alert
  • Real-time protection
  • Antispam support
  • Supports cross-platform
  • Support server-side protection

3. ClamAV

This is the best and probably widely referred antivirus in Linux community. ClamAV is the opensource and free to use. It is recognized as versatile antivirus to detect trojans, malware, and viruses. It also supports standard mail gateway scanning. It is easy to use and fast to run because it doesn’t have native GUI and works through the terminal.

Features

  • Opensource
  • Free
  • Cross-platform works in Linux, Windows and Mac OS
  • Works from the terminal
  • Support on-access scanning for mailing service
  • POSIX compliant support
  • Portable

4. F-PROT

F-Prot is the well-renowned antivirus for Linux. This particular Linux antivirus can be used at home or industrial level. It supports 32 and 64bit software architecture as a Linux antivirus software. It scans over 2119958 known viruses and their other possible variants.This Linux antivirus software is portable and performs schedule scanning using cron technology.IT can detect different types of viruses trojan even boot sectors.

Features

  • Free and portable
  • Detects more than 21 million threats and their other variants
  • Can run on different software architecture
  • Scanning feature for internal drive and drivers
  • Scan for boot sector virus, macro, and trojan viruses

5. Chkrootkit

From the name, Chkrootkit, you can guess it really works on root and frankly speaking it is the best option for rootkit available in a Linux system. IT is lightweight and portable. You can easily burn it to CD or USB. It contains multiple programs to support the users like.

Features

  • Rootkit detection
  • Lightweight
  • Portable
  • Easy to use and fast
  • Run from terminal
  • Multiple error solver

6. Rootkit Hunter

Rootkit Hunter is another best option for the rootkit. It works on command and uses backdoor and other local exploits to detect all kind of virus, trojans. A rootkit is developed on Bourne shell with an SHA-1  hash comparison for better service with portability feature. This particular software is available for different distros

Features

  • Rootkit detection
  • Works from command line
  • Fast and easy to use
  • Supports SHA-1 comparison to detect malicious entry
  • Portable

7. ClamTK

This is, ClamTK, the updated version of ClamAV with its lightweight GUI for usual user. Since it is with GUI it is easy to use and having a facility of on-demand scanning for malware and trojans. It is developed with Perl and Gtk libraries.

Features

  • Opensource
  • Free
  • Works from GUI
  • Support on demand scanning
  • Portable

8. BitDefender

This can be your next antivirus for Ubuntu. In Linux community, BitDefender did an excellent job as a Linux antivirus software. Here is a but we have to think of, as a Linux antivirus software it is not free, you have to download the trial version. But within this trial, it is still the best antivirus software for Linux.

Features

  • It scans of archives.
  • Desktop integration supports.
  • Intuitive GUI and also support command line interface
  • Quarantine infected files into a protected directory.

9. ESET NOD32 Antivirus 4

In the AV-Test, ESET was in the first rank and selected as the best antivirus for Linux or Ubuntu. But the software is not totally free you can have it as your ubuntu antivirus for a limited time and as a trial version. But if you think about its feature then price won’t be a problem. It can be said that this particular Linux antivirus is the best for malware detection built for Linux only. But you will get surprised by the result because it also detects virus for other  OS malware and trojans

Feature

  • Best virus, malware, detector selected by AV-Test
  • Best antivirus and antispyware
  • Spying detector
  • Home and industrial level solution
  • Network security
  • Automatic update

10. Avast Core Security

One of our final best choice as a Linux antivirus. This Linux antivirus also came up among the best in the AV-Test. It works with Ubuntu and other Linux distros 32-bit and 64-bit software architecture. This Linux antivirus supports core security, network security and also provide file server security. This software you can download it from here. But this version is trial version but it works way better than other available free versions.

Features

  • Real-Time protection and anti-spyware
  • On-demand scanning and planned scanning function
  • Core security, network security
  • Home and industrial security
  • Regular update for assuring new threat

Final Thought

Finally, I tried to bring you the best antivirus software for Linux system based on different categories like price, availability, reliability and reliable online test result. From the beginning, I described the free version and believe that you may find it best option for your Linux device. Later parts are trial versions but offer some good and useful options as the best antivirus for Linux. All those above Linux Antivirus will keep your device and your data secure

 

A Video on Linux Antivirus

References

The 7 Best Free Linux Anti-Virus Programs

Why You Don’t Need an Antivirus On Linux (Usually) – HowToGeek

 

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Posted by Mario1 - 09/11/2017 at 2:50 pm

Categories: Applications, Linux Sofware   Tags:

IBM iSeries Access from Mobile Phones

iSeries Access from Mobile Phones.

IBM i DatabasePeople who are frequently on the move might like to access their iSeries computer (previously known as AS/400)  remotely from their mobile phone.

This is now possible by  using  IBM i Access for Web (5770XH2) or iSeries Access for Wireless.

These products support the administration of OS/400 and application development for intended wireless devices such as personal digital assistants (PDA) and Internet-enabled phones.

 

The IBM eServer(TM) iSeries Access for Wireless licensed program is the solution for wireless device connectivity. It allows you to use your wireless device to access and administer your servers. It consists of iSeries Navigator for Wireless and IBM Toolbox for Java(TM) 2 Micro Edition services, which can be used individually or together to provide the access you need. iSeries Access for Wireless includes the following:

  • An OS/400 administrator interface called iSeries Navigator for Wireless, previously called Management Central-Pervasive, is enhanced and consolidated as part of iSeries Navigator.
  • The IBM Toolbox for Java 2 Micro Edition, which is part of IBM Toolbox for Java, is used by developers to rapidly develop Java applications that access iSeries data and resources. This micro edition extends its capabilities to wireless devices. It also includes the Java Database Connection (JDBC) driver to access DB2 UDB for iSeries

IBM i Access for Web include the ability to:

References

iSeries on the mobile phone

IBM i Access

Connecting to iSeries: iSeries Access for Wireless

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Posted by Mario1 - 05/11/2017 at 11:27 am

Categories: AS/400 Software   Tags: ,

Linux File System Types

Linux File Systems Types.

Linux File SystemWhen you install a Linux distribution, you must choose one file system type to use and Linux offers many possibilities.

I recently noticed an interesting article on the MakeTeachEasier.com website with useful information about the possible Linux file system types and I have re-published it below for your convenience.

What’s the Best File System for My Linux Install?

File systems: they’re not the most exciting things in the world, but important nonetheless. In this article we’ll go over the popular choices for file systems on Linux – what they’re about, what they can do, and who they’re for.

file-systems-ext4

If you’ve ever installed Linux before, chances are you’ve seen the “Ext4” during installation. There’s a good reason for that: it’s the file system of choice for just about every Linux distribution available right now. Sure, there are some that choose other options, but there’s no denying that Extended 4 is the file system of choice for almost all Linux users.

What can it do?

Extended 4 has all of the goodness that you’ve come to expect from past file system iterations (Ext2/Ext3) but with enhancements. There’s a lot to dig into, but here are the best parts of what Ext4 can do for you:

  • file system journaling
  • journal checksums
  • multi-block file allocation
  • backwards compatibility support for Extended 2 and 3
  • persistent pre-allocation of free space
  • improved file system checking (over previous versions)
  • and of course, support for larger files

Who is it for?

Extended 4 is for those looking for a super-stable foundation to build upon, or for those looking for something that just works. This file system won’t snapshot your system; it doesn’t even have the greatest SSD support, but If your needs aren’t too extravagant, you’ll get along with it just fine.

file-systems-btrFS

The B-tree file system (also known as butterFS) is a file system for Linux developed by Oracle. It’s a new file system and is in heavy development stages. The Linux community considers it unstable to use for some. The core principle of BtrFS is based around the principle of copy-on-write. Copy on write basically means that the system has one single copy of a bit of data before the data has been written. When the data has been written, a copy of it is made.

What can it do?

Besides supporting copy-on-write, BtrFS can do many other things – so many things, in fact, that it’d take forever to list everything. Here are the most notable features: The file system supports read-only snapshots, file cloning, subvolumes, transparent compression, offline file system check, in-place conversion from ext3 and 4 to Btrfs, online defragmentation, anew has support for RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5, RAID 6 and RAID 10.

Who is it for?

The developers of BtrFS have promised that this file system is the next-gen replacement for other file systems out there. That much is true, though it certainly is a work in progress. There are many killer features for advanced users and basic users alike (including great performance on SSDs). This file system is for those looking to get a little bit more out of their file system and who want to try the copy-on-write way of doing things.

file-systems-xfs

Developed and created by Silicon Graphics, XFS is a high-end file system that specializes in speed and performance. XFS does extremely well when it comes to parallel input and output because of its focus on performance. The XFS file system can handle massive amounts of data, so much in fact that some users of XFS have close to 300+ terabytes of data.

What can it do?

XFS is a well-tested data storage file system created for high performance operations. Its features include:

  • striped allocation of RAID arrays
  • file system journaling
  • variable block sizes
  • direct I/O
  • guaranteed-rate I/O
  • snapshots
  • online defragmentation
  • online resizing

Who is it for?

XFS is for those looking for a rock-solid file solution. The file system has been around since 1993 and has only gotten better and better with time. If you have a home server and you’re perplexed on where you should go with storage, consider XFS. A lot of the features the file system comes with (like snapshots) could aid in your file storage system. It’s not just for servers, though. If you’re a more advanced user and you’re interested in a lot of what was promised in BtrFS, check out XFS. It does a lot of the same stuff and doesn’t have stability issues.

file-system-riser4

Reiser4, the successor to ReiserFS, is a file system created and developed by Namesys. The creation of Reiser4 was backed by the Linspire project as well as DARPA. What makes Reiser4 special is its multitude of transaction models. There isn’t one single way data can be written; instead, there are many.

What can it do?

Reiser4 has the unique ability to use different transaction models. It can use the copy-on-write model (like BtrFS), write-anywhere, journaling, and the hybrid transaction model. It has a lot of improvements upon ReiserFS, including better file system journaling via wandering logs, better support for smaller files, and faster handling of directories. Reiser4 has a lot to offer. There are a lot more features to talk about, but suffice it to say it’s a huge improvement over ReiserFS with tons of added features.

Who is it for?

Resier4 is for those looking to stretch one file system across multiple use-cases. Maybe you want to set up one machine with copy-on-write, another with write-anywhere, and another with hybrid transaction, and you don’t want to use different types of file systems to accomplish this task. Reiser4 is perfect for this type of use-case.

There are many file systems available on Linux. Each serves a unique purpose for unique users looking to solve different problems.This post focuses on the most popular choices for the platform. There is no doubt there are other choices out there for other use-cases

A Video on the Linux File Systems Types

References

LinuxFilesystemsExplained
Which Linux File System Should You Use?
7 Ways to Determine the File System Type in Linux (Ext2, Ext3 or Ext4)
Which File System Should You Use?
Free E-Book to Learn Linux

 

 

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Posted by Mario1 - 11/09/2017 at 2:06 pm

Categories: Linux Sofware, Operating Systems   Tags:

OpenSuSE Linux – An Amazing Linux Distro

OpenSuSE Linux

OpenSuSE DistroI have used OpenSuSE Linux for many years and I consider it one of the best Linux Distributions.

Currently the openSuSE project offers two distributions: Tumbleweed, which is a rolling distribution that gets continuous updates, and Leap, which is a point distribution that gets periodic updates

Recently I read a good article on the Foss Post website that contains a pretty good description of the OpenSuSE features (by looking mainly at Tumbleweed) and I have re-published it below for your convenience.

OpenSuSE is an Amazing Underestimated Linux Distribution

I still remember using openSUSE 11.3 around 7 years ago for the first time. It was the second Linux distribution I used since I converted from Windows. Was awesome. Still so.

Unfortunately, the distribution is very underestimated. While most Linux users do know about it, it doesn’t seem to attract very much attention those days. Most of the lights are going toward distributions like Ubuntu, Mint, Manjaro.. And those shiny new distributions.

In this post, we would like to highlight some features which make openSUSE remarkable.

openSUSE Tumbleweed

Tumbleweed is the rolling release branch of openSUSE. It’s just like Arch Linux and the other rolling distributions; You get the software as soon as its ready in the repositories.

 

However, unlike some others, the packages you get in openSUSE Tumbleweed are tested. You don’t get beta or alpha releases. You also don’t get software which is known to be not working or causing various problems in the system. It’s a rolling release model provided with quality (see next the coming openQA section). Which is a nice thing to have.

openSUSE Tumbleweed made some remarkable movements in providing newly-released software to users. For example they’ve provided GNOME 3.24 to users in just 2 days after its release, making them the first ever to ship the new version.

Tumbleweed is the first major distribution to use GCC 7 by default. Just around 1 day ago of publishing this post, Tumbleweed images have been recompiled with GCC 7.

Same things happens from time to time for a lot of different packages. You can keep checking news.opensuse.org to see the latest news about kernel packages, GNOME, KDE and other packages added to openSUSE Tumbleweed.

 

openQA

openQA is a quality assurance service created by SUSE/openSUSE. All the openSUSE releases (Leap and Tumbleweed) and a lot of openSUSE core packages (GNOME, KDE, YaST2..) are tested on that platform. It provides a set of API functions and methods to use in order to test packages and ISO images with automated tests and scenarios. After that, users can test it manually.

The thing about openQA is that it’s not just some automated scripts which do this and that and then check the output of various commands to see if bugs or problems exist. It utilizes openCV and other libraries to “see” what’s going on the screen. It hits different keyboard combinations and runs complicated installation/configuration scenarios and reads the screen in order to determine what’s going on.

The complete testing process is recorded and all the log files are uploaded automatically. You can check the following video for the latest openSUSE Tumblweed GNOME build (opensuse-Tumbleweed-DVD-x86_64-Build20170529-gnome@64bit):

Things like openQA means better quality. Instead of completely depending on manual testing – like most other Linux distributions – openQA helps a lot in automation of those tests and detecting bugs instantly before releasing any new ISO images. Making openSUSE more robust and bug-free.

All openQA source code is free and released on GitHub.

Zypper

Zypper is the default package manager for SUSE/openSUSE. Just like dnf and apt, zypper can handle any ordinary package management task like installing, removing and updating packages.

According to a personal experience, package management with zypper was faster more lightweight on the system than Apt and Dnf. In Zypper, even if you add a new repository which includes an already installed package with a newer version, it won’t be installed until you change the default vendor for that package. Which is good from a lot of aspects.

Zypper has a lot of features which you can check from its page.

YaST2

YaST2

Probably the most special thing about openSUSE is YaST2: The complete control center capable of configuring everything on a Linux system. It comes by default on SUSE & openSUSE distributions.

YaST2 is awesome because it contains a lot of options and functionalities. Currently, there exist around 80 different modules for YaST2, which allows you to configure software management, containers, services, kernels, servers, hardware and a lot lot more. You can say it’s around 80 different applications in a single center.

I like the software management module:

YaST2 Software Management

When I downloaded openSUSE again around few week ago, I gave it a shot in trying to find a Samsung printer’s driver. YaST2 did the whole job in around 1 minute. It searched for the possible drivers and listed them. I selected the one I needed and installed it. I couldn’t do this easily on some other distributions:

YaST2 Drivers

What is also nice about YaST2 is that it provides a TUI (Text-based User Interface) for all its modules. Meaning that you can run YaST2 from your openSUSE system in the command-line mode and still be able to configure your system in a quick and fast way. You can also use it on your servers:

YaST2 TUI

You can also manage your operating system remotely using WebYast. Just install it on your machine and launch the service online in order to be able to mange it through your web browser any time:

Image via: http://webyast.github.io

 

There are tons of other modules which you can use to manage your system. The idea of providing a complete graphical solution to manage all the system aspects from A to Z in a Linux distribution doesn’t seem to exist anywhere else other than in SUSE/openSUSE.

openSUSE Build Service

openSUSE Build Service

openSUSE Build Service (OBS) is an online platform for building and distributing software packages. Developers and packagers can create packages easily using the platform for different Linux distributions (not just openSUSE!). Currently, it supports Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, CentOS and a lot more of other distributions.

OBS currently hosts 400,000 packages. You can search for any package you need via software.opensuse.org. If you were using SUSE/openSUSE, you can install any package in a single click via YaST 1-Click Install:

OBS Download Page Example For A Package

As usual, the source code for OBS is available on GitHub.

SUSE Studio

SUSE Studio

This service is actually provided by SUSE, but since both distributions are like two sides of the same coin, it won’t hurt to mention it here.

SUSE Studio allows you to create a customized operating system based on SUSE/openSUSE in few minutes. Just login to your account there and choose what base image you want to use, add the software and configurations you want and hit the build button.

SUSE Studio is cool because it allows you to export your images to different formats and mediums. It’s also compatible with the openSUSE Build service. It also allows you to run your images online before downloading them using Testdrive. All of this is for free.

This is an example for Testdrive running GeckoLinux Plasma inside the browser:

SUSE Studio Testdrive

It also provides a nice download page for each project. In that download page, you can see the added packages/files to the images as well as repositories and configurations. This allows you to check if it’s safe to download the images or not.

SUSE Studio uses Kiwi as its core to build images. It’s also free and released under GPL.

If you are interested about it, you may check our tutorial about building a Linux distribution using the service.

Btrfs and Snapper

Btrfs is the default filesystem in openSUSE. It’s a copy-on-write filesystem. One of its main features is the ability to take “snapshots” of files stored on your hard disk in order to be able to restore them later.

openSUSE is very compatible with this filesystem. There’s a module in YaST2 called Snapper. Which allows you to restore your system to whatever state you want at any history before/after administrative actions. Such as package installation/removal or configurations change.

For example, if you run a system upgrade using zypper dup. And something broke and you no longer can enter your system, you can easily go back to the previous system state before the upgrading process occurred. All your files and configurations will be restored to that specific time. Just like a system restore point in Windows.

 

A Video Review of OpenSuSE 42,2 (Leap)

 

 

Conclusion

There are a lot of features which make openSUSE a remarkable Linux distribution. If you are happy with your current Linux distribution, you probably don’t need to change it. However, if you are looking for something new and modern, it’s recommended that you give openSUSE a try.

You can learn more about openSUSE from their official website: openSUSE.org

References

Side-by-side: openSuSE Tumbleweed and Leap | ZDNet

A brief comparison of Leap vs. Tumbleweed : openSUSE – Reddit

 

 

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Posted by Mario1 - 17/06/2017 at 2:43 pm

Categories: Linux Sofware, Operating Systems   Tags:

How to run Android Apps on Linux

Android Apps on Linux.

One way to run Android apps on Linux is provided by Anbox as described in a recent article published on the Techknowarena.com website that I have re-published below for your convenience.

Run your Android apps on Linux using Anbox

 

Anbox is a new open source project which runs the Android apps on Ubuntu Operating system. Simon Fels debuted the pre release of Anbox environment last week. He said that they have been working since 2015 to develop an Android environment for Linux. He also stated that “It was born out of the idea of putting Android into a simple container based on LXC and bridging relevant parts over to the host operating system while not allowing any access to real hardware or user data” in an online post. As there were some user interface problems but now it seems to be solved and ready to work with said by Fels.

This is not an emulator but also includes additional Kernel modules. The interface also requires a root access. The Anbox seems to be the best Android interface environment for Linux machine. The version is now ready for use. The Linux users can run their Android apps on Linux machine. As many attempts have been done on Anbox to succeed with, “By making it possible to run mobile apps on a PC, you get to tap that rich application ecosystem,” said by Al Gillen, group vice president for software development and open source at IDC. He also added that “This is in effect a virtualization and/or emulation system to provide an Android-like runtime environment for mobile apps.”

This platform will also make the developers to increase the use of content in Linux environment. The use of applications will also be increased by the Linux users. Peter Christy, research director at 451 Research said that “Android applications, I think, are intended to run on smartphones — and I don’t think many people use Linux in that kind of form factor.”  The platform makes the Android environment is isolated from the host using namespaces in Linux.

To know the installation process click here.

The Anbox can be installed in Ubuntu 16.04 using terminal. The following command has to be used to proceed with the platform  “sudo snap install –classic anbox-installer && anbox-installer”.

 

A Video on Android Apps on Linux

References

How to Install Linux on Android

An Introduction to the Android Operating System

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Posted by Mario1 - 05/05/2017 at 9:49 am

Categories: Android Software, Computer Software, Linux Sofware   Tags:

The Ubuntu Desktop Evolution

Ubuntu Desktop

Recently the Canonical founder Mark Shuttleworth announced that the Unity desktop development has been stopped and he has shared some details regarding Ubuntu’s future.

I have copied below an interesting article published by the Fossbytes website that discusses the future of the Ubuntu Desktop environment,

The Future Of Ubuntu Linux Desktop — What’s Next?

 

ubuntu linux desktop

Short Bytes: After announcing that Ubuntu 18.04 LTS will ship with GNOME as the default desktop environment, Canonical founder Mark Shuttleworth has shared some details regarding Ubuntu’s future. In a Google+ post, he made clear that Canonical will be investing in Ubuntu GNOME with a motive to deliver an all-GNOME experience. One should also note that despite the demise of Unity 8, Snaps and Ubuntu Core are here to stay.

Last week, Canonical founder Mark Shuttleworth shook the open source world by announcing that Canonical will be giving up the development of Unity and convergence shell for phones/tablets. He announced that Ubuntu 18.04, the next LTS release, will ship with GNOME as the default desktop environment.

In his announcement post, Shuttleworth announced that his convergence vision was wrong and the open source community perceived it as fragmentation. But, what’s next for the world’s most popular open-source operating system for desktop, i.e., Ubuntu?

In a Google+ post, which looks like a follow up to the original post, Shuttleworth highlighted some major points that will continue to be the focus of Ubuntu desktop.

Before going ahead and reading about the future of Ubuntu, don’t miss our useful lists:

Based on his post and other related developments, here are the answers to some of the biggest Ubuntu-related question:

What’s next for Ubuntu Desktop?

1. All GNOME desktop in Ubuntu

In his post, Shuttleworth said that Canonical will invest in Ubuntu GNOME and deliver an all-GNOME desktop. It means that we can expect Ubuntu GNOME without much changes to make it look more like Unity.

2. Upgrade from Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Unity to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS GNOME

This might be a big question on the minds of Ubuntu users. Shuttleworth has assured that the Canonical engineers will surely figure out a way to smoothly update Ubuntu 16.04 LTS Unity to Ubuntu 18.04 LTS GNOME.

3. Snaps and Ubuntu Core aren’t going away

Canonical founder already made it clear that Snaps and Ubuntu core aren’t going anywhere. Snaps and Ubuntu Core will remain a major part of Canonical’s strategy. You should also expect more Snaps adoption in near future.

4. What about Mir?

The future of Mir remains unclear. As Wayland is receiving all the love from the open source community, it’s less likely that Canonical will try to push Mir aggressively in near future. However, in his post, Shuttleworth said, “we have lots of IoT projects using Mir as a compositor so that code continues to receive investment. I agree, it’s a very fast, clean and powerful graphics composition engine, and smart people love it for that.”

5. Unity 7 will be available in archive

The Unity 7 packages will remain in the Ubuntu archives. Also, Unity 8 has been picked by third party developers and I’ll be keeping a close eye on its development.

Are you excited about these changes coming to Ubuntu Linux desktop? Don’t forget to share your views.

A Video on theEnd of Unity Desktop in Ubuntu

References

5 Developments After Ubuntu Unity Fiasco

Explained: Which Ubuntu Should I Use?

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Posted by Mario1 - 19/04/2017 at 3:43 pm

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Books to Learn Linux for Free

 Books to Learn Linux

Learn Linux

There are many ways to learn Linux and in this article I will introduce some free books and a video course.

I found an interesting article recently on the It’s Foss website about books to learn Linux and I have re-published it below for your convenience.

 

20+ Free Books To Learn Linux For Free

How to learn Linux?

This is perhaps the most commonly asked question in our Facebook group for Linux users.

The answer to this simple looking question ‘how to learn Linux’ is not at all simple.

Problem is that different people have different meanings of learning Linux.

  • If someone has never used Linux, be it command line or desktop version, that person might be just wondering to know more about it.
  • If someone uses Windows as the desktop but have to use Linux command line at work, that person might be interested in learning Linux commands.
  • If someone has been using Linux for sometimes and is aware of the basics but he/she might want to go to the next level.
  • If someone is just interested in getting your way around a specific Linux distribution.
  • If someone is trying to improve or learn Bash scripting which is almost synonymous with Linux command line.
  • If someone is willing to make a career as a Linux SysAdmin or trying to improve his/her sysadmin skills.

You see, the answer to “how do I learn Linux” depends on what kind of Linux knowledge you are seeking. And for this purpose, I have collected a bunch of resources that you could use for learning Linux.

These free resources include eBooks, video courses, websites etc. And these are divided into sub-categories so that you can easily find what you are looking for when you seek to learn Linux.

Again, there is no best way to learn Linux. It totally up to you how you go about learning Linux, by online web portals, downloaded eBooks, video courses or something else.

Let’s see how you can learn Linux.

Disclaimer: All the books listed here are legal to download. The sources mentioned here are the official sources, as per my knowledge. However, if you find it otherwise, please let me know so that I can take appropriate action.

Best Free eBooks to learn Linux for Free

1. Free materials to learn Linux for absolute beginners

So perhaps you have just heard of Linux from your friends or from a discussion online. You are intrigued about the hype around Linux and you are overwhelmed by the vast information available on the internet but just cannot figure out exactly where to look for to know more about Linux.

Worry not. Most of us, if not all, have been to your stage.

Introduction to Linux by Linux Foundation [Video Course]

If you have no idea about what is Linux and you want to get started with it, I suggest you to go ahead with the free video course provided by the Linux Foundation on edX. Consider it an official course by the organization that ‘maintains’ Linux. And yes, it is endorsed by Linus Torvalds, the father of Linux himself.

==> Introduction To Linux

 

Linux Journey [Online Portal]

Not official and perhaps not very popular. But this little website is the perfect place for a no non-sense Linux learning for beginners.

The website is designed beautifully and is well organized based on the topics. It also has interactive quizzes that you can take after reading a section or chapter. My advice, bookmark this website:

==> Linux Journey

 

Learn Linux in 5 Days [eBook]

This brilliant eBook is available for free exclusively to It’s FOSS readers all thanks to Linux Training Academy.

Written for absolute beginners in mind, this free Linux eBook gives you a quick overview of Linux, common Linux commands and other things that you need to learn to get started with Linux.

You can download the book from the page below:

==> Learn Linux In 5 Days

 

The Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide [eBook]

This is a free to download eBook for Linux beginners. The eBook starts with explaining what is Linux and then go on to provide more practical usage of Linux as a desktop.

You can download the latest version of this eBook from the link below:

==> The Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide

2. Free Linux eBooks for Beginners to Advanced

This section lists out those Linux eBooks that are ‘complete’ in nature.

What I mean is that these are like academic textbooks that focus on each and every aspects of Linux, well most of it. You can read those as an absolute beginner or you can read those for deeper understanding as an intermediate Linux user. You can also use them for reference even if you are at expert level.

Introduction to Linux [eBook]

Introduction to Linux is a free eBook from The Linux Documentation Project and it is one of the most popular free Linux books out there. Though I think some parts of this book needs to be updated, it is still a very good book to teach you about Linux, its file system, command line, networking and other related stuff.

==> Introduction To Linux

 

Linux Fundamentals [eBook]

This free eBook by Paul Cobbaut teaches you about Linux history, installation and focuses on the basic Linux commands you should know. You can get the book from the link below:

==> Linux Fundamentals

 

Advanced Linux Programming [eBook]

As the name suggests, this is for advanced users who are or want to develop software for Linux. It deals with sophisticated features such as multiprocessing, multi-threading, interprocess communication, and interaction with hardware devices.

Following the book will help you develop a faster, reliable and secure program that uses the full capability of a GNU/Linux system.

==> Advanced Linux Programming

 

Linux From Scratch [eBook]

If you think you know enough about Linux and you are a pro, then why not create your own Linux distribution? Linux From Scratch (LFS) is a project that provides you with step-by-step instructions for building your own custom Linux system, entirely from source code.

Call it DIY Linux but this is a great way to put your Linux expertise to the next level.

There are various sub-parts of this project, you can check it out on its website and download the books from there.

==> Linux From Scratch

 

3. Free eBooks to learn Linux command line and Shell scripting

The real power of Linux lies in the command line and if you want to conquer Linux, you must learn Linux command line and Shell scripting.

In fact, if you have to work on Linux terminal on your job, having a good knowledge of Linux command line will actually help you in your tasks and perhaps help you in advancing your career as well (as you’ll be more efficient).

In this section, we’ll see various Linux commands free eBooks.

 

GNU/Linux Command?Line Tools Summary [eBook]

This eBook from The Linux Documentation Project is a good place to begin with Linux command line and get acquainted with Shell scripting.

==> GNU/Linux Command? Line Tools Summary

 

Bash Reference Manual from GNU [eBook]

This is a free eBook to download from GNU. As the name suggests, it deals with Bash Shell (if I can call that). This book has over 175 pages and it covers a number of topics around Linux command line in Bash.

You can get it from the link below:

==> Bash Reference Manual

 

The Linux Command Line [eBook]

This 500+ pages of free eBook by William Shotts is the MUST HAVE for anyone who is serious about learning Linux command line.

Even if you think you know things about Linux, you’ll be amazed at how much this book still teaches you.

It covers things from beginners to advanced level. I bet that you’ll be a hell lot of better Linux user after reading this book. Download it and keep it with you always.

==> The Linux Command Line

 

Bash Guide for Beginners [eBook]

If you just want to get started with Bash scripting, this could be a good companion for you. The Linux Documentation Project is behind this eBook again and it’s the same author who wrote Introduction to Linux eBook (discussed earlier in this article).

==> Bash Guide for Beginners

 

Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide [eBook]

If you think you already know basics of Bash scripting and you want to take your skills to the next level, this is what you need. This book has over 900+ pages of various advanced commands and their examples.

==> Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide

The AWK Programming Language [eBook]

Not the prettiest book here but if you really need to go deeper with your scripts, this old-yet-gold book could be helpful.

==> The AWK Programming Language

 

Linux 101 Hacks [eBook]

This 270 pages eBook from The Geek Stuff teaches you the essentials of Linux command lines with easy to follow practical examples. You can get the book from the link below:

==> Linux 101 Hacks

 

4. Distribution specific free learning material

This section deals with material that are dedicated to a certain Linux distribution. What we saw so far was the Linux in general, more focused on file systems, commands and other core stuff.

These books, on the other hand, can be termed as manual or getting started guide for various Linux distributions. So if you are using a certain Linux distribution or planning to use it, you can refer to these resources. And yes, these books are more desktop Linux focused.

I would also like to add that most Linux distributions have their own wiki or documentation section which are often pretty vast. You can always refer to them when you are online.

 

Ubuntu Manual

Needless to say that this eBook is for Ubuntu users. It’s an independent project that provides Ubuntu manual in the form of free eBook. It is updated for each version of Ubuntu.

The book is rightly called manual because it is basically a composition of step by step instruction and aimed at absolute beginners to Ubuntu. So, you get to know Unity desktop, how to go around it and find applications etc.

It’s a must have if you never used Ubuntu Unity because it helps you to figure out how to use Ubuntu for your daily usage.

==> Ubuntu Manual

 

For Linux Mint: Just Tell Me Damnit! [eBook]

A very basic eBook that focuses on Linux Mint. It shows you how to install Linux Mint in a virtual machine, how to find software, install updates and customize the Linux Mint desktop.

You can download the eBook from the link below:

==> Just Tell Me Damnit!

 

Solus Linux Manual [eBook]

Caution! This used to be the official manual from Solus Linux but I cannot find its mentioned on Solus Project’s website anymore. I don’t know if it’s outdated or not. But in any case, a little something about Solu Linux won’t really hurt, will it?

==> Solus Linux User Guide

 

5. Free eBooks for SysAdmin

This section is dedicated to the SysAdmins, the superheroes for developers. I have listed a few free eBooks here for SysAdmin which will surely help anyone who is already a SysAdmin or aspirs to be one. I must add that you should also focus on essential Linux command lines as it will make your job easier.

 

The Debian Administration’s Handbook [eBook]

If you use Debian Linux for your servers, this is your bible. Book starts with Debian history, installation, package management etc and then moves on to cover topics like LAMP, virtual machines, storage management and other core sysadmin stuff.

==> The Debian Administration’s Handbook

 

Advanced Linux System Administration [eBook]

This is an ideal book if you are preparing for LPI certification. The book deals straightway to the topics essential for sysadmins. So knowledge of Linux command line is a prerequisite in this case.

==> Advanced Linux System Administration

 

Linux System Administration [eBook]

Another free eBook by Paul Cobbaut. The 370 pages long eBook covers networking, disk management, user management, kernel management, library management etc.

==> Linux System Administration

 

Linux Servers [eBook]

One more eBook from Paul Cobbaut of linux-training.be. This book covers web servers, mysql, DHCP, DNS, Samba and other file servers.

==> Linux Servers

Linux Networking [eBook]

Networking is the bread and butter of a SysAdmin, and this book by Paul Cobbaut (again) is a good reference material.

==> Linux Networking

Linux Storage [eBook]

This book by Paul Cobbaut (yes, him again) explains disk management on Linux in detail and introduces a lot of other storage-related technologies.

==> Linux Storage

Linux Security [eBook]

This is the last eBook by Paul Cobbaut in our list here. Security is one of the most important part of a sysadmin’s job. This book focuses on file permissions, acls, SELinux, users and passwords etc.

==> Linux Security

 

Your favorite Linux learning material?

I know that this is a good collection of free Linux eBooks. But this could always be made better.

If you have some other resources that could be helpful in learning Linux, do share with us. Please note to share only the legal downloads so that I can update this article with your suggestion(s) without any problem.

I hope you find this article helpful in learning Linux. Your feedback is welcome 🙂

 

A Linux Video Course


This is the first of series of 44 videos. To access all the videos click here

 

Note:

==> It’s FOSS is a blog that focuses on Open Source in general and Linux in particular.

 

 

 

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Posted by Mario1 - 14/04/2017 at 4:09 pm

Categories: Computer Books, Ebooks, Linux Sofware   Tags:

Linux OpenSuSE Tumbleweed vs. Leaps

Tumbleweed vs. Leaps

OpenSuSE currently offers two different Linux distributions known as Tumbleweed and Leaps. I have re-published below an  interesting article published on ZDNet.com that explains the differences between the two distribtions

Side-by-side: openSuSE Tumbleweed and Leap

openSuSE offers a development distribution, Tumbleweed, and a stable distribution, Leap. Here is a side-by-side rundown of the differences between the two

The openSuSE project offers two distributions: Tumbleweed, which is a rolling distribution that gets continuous updates, and Leap, which is a point distribution that gets periodic updates.

Looking at it a different way, I think of Tumbleweed as being a development distribution, so I expect it to get the latest version of all its major packages very quickly, but I am not surprised when there is some minor instability. I consider Leap to be a stable distribution, so some of the major/critical packages only get updates when a new point release is made, and I expect it to be very dependable.

What I would like to do in this post is to look a little more closely at the differences between these two distributions. This will include decisions about when and where each distribution should be installed, differences in the distribution and installation process, updates and daily use of the systems.

Choosing

The first major difference between Tumbleweed and Leap is in the consideration of when and where they should be installed. Because Tumbleweed is a rolling distribution and is tied very closely to openSuSE development (it is one step behind the unstable factory version), it generally should not be installed in a situation where stability is a high priority. That obviously means it is not well suited for production systems where downtime would be a significant problem, but I also recommend that it not be used on systems which are being prepared for non-technical (or non-tolerant) users. A specific example of this would be that I have openSuSE on all of my own systems, but I would not put it on a system that I was setting up for my partner, or for another family/friend/neighbor as a Windows replacement system.

openSUSE also recommends a technical consideration in deciding where to install Tumbleweed. Because it is a rapidly changing leading-edge distribution, it should not be installed on systems which need or want proprietary hardware drivers. Some common examples of this are systems which have nVidia or Radeon display adapters, or Broadcom WiFi adapters. In some cases there are FOSS drivers available, such as nouveau and radeon if you are happy to use those. In other cases, such as the Broadcom WiFi adapter in my Acer Aspire E11, you might be able to find the proprietary driver in the pacman repository, but you should keep in mind that Tumbleweed sometimes moves forward so quickly that pacman doesn’t keep up. I recently ran into this problem, and it finally caused me to give up and switch to Leap on my Aspire E11.

If you take those restrictions on who should install Tumbleweed and turn them around, you have a pretty good idea who should install Leap. The primary target is stable systems – and by that I mean not only stable operation without downtime, I also mean systems which are themselves stable, and are not getting new hardware swapped in and out regularly. If you don’t need the absolute latest Linux kernel, desktop, display system or whatever, then Leap is a good choice.

I suppose that the choice could be reduced to one very simple statement – you should install Leap unless you know that you have some specific need for or interest in Tumbleweed.

Installing

There is more difference in the installation process of the two distributions than you might expect. Leap is available from the openSuSE Downloads page, as a 4.7GB full installer image, or an 85MB Network Install image. Note that both of these are installation images only, not full-boot Live images. There also used to be Live images available, but i can’t find them any more.

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Tumbleweed ISO images are on the Tumbleweed Installation page, again as full DVD installer or network installation images. There are also Live CDs listed on that page, but there is a clear warning that says use of the Live images is discouraged. I would state that even more emphatically, do not use the Live images for anything other than emergency system recovery. The problem is that the Live images are updated much less frequently than the installer images, and it seems to me that they get less attention in general. There have been numerous times in the past few years when I learned (the hard way) that the Live images were broken and would not install. I don’t bother with them at all any more.

All of the ISO images for both Leap and Tumbleweed are hybrid images which can either be burned to CD/DVD or copied directly to a USB stick and booted. The installer (yast) is nearly identical for both as well. Both versions offer btrfs as the default for the root filesystem.

Both Leap and Tumbleweed are compatible with MBR and UEFI systems, including UEFI Secure Boot support. In fact, the openSuSE bootloader is the one reason more than any other that I keep it loaded on all of my computers. The bootloader handles multi-boot with other Linux distributions and/or Windows with no trouble, and it is graphically very pleasing. The default bootloader on every one of my systems is openSuSE – even if I often actually boot into some other distribution.

Booting and Running Tumbleweed

tumbleweed.png
openSuSE Tumbleweed KDE Desktop

If you choose the KDE desktop during installation, it boots to the rather plain-looking desktop with the geometric wallpaper shown above, with KDE Plasma 5.6.4.

One of the biggest differences between Tumbleweed and Leap is in the day-to-day operation of the system – the frequency and number of updates that come through. The Software Updates notifier sits in the system tray, and by default checks daily for updates. It is not unusual for it to announce new updates are available every day.

Booting and Running Leap

leap.png
openSuSE Leap 42.1 KDE Desktop

Leap (KDE) comes up with a somewhat more decorative wallpaper, running KDE Plasma 5.5.5.

Leap also has a Software Updates notifier in the system tray, but updates come through much less frequently. I don’t use Leap consistently enough to have a good feel for exactly how often updates are available, but I would guess it averages something like weekly, or perhaps even every few weeks. It really depends on when there are significant security fixes coming out (they come through to Leap very quickly, of course), or when there are updates to some of the core applications such as Firefox or LibreOffice.

Contents

The difference in focus between the leading-edge Tumbleweed distribution and the conservative Leap distribution makes for significant differences in content, even though they are both openSuSE distributions with the KDE Plasma desktop:

Leap Tumbleweed
Linux Kernel 4.1.26 4.6.3
KDE Plasma 5.5.5 5.6.4
Qt 5.5.1 5.6.1
gcc 4.8.5 6.1.1
X.org 1.17.2 1.18.3
Firefox 47.0 47.0.1
LibreOffice 5.0.4.2 5.2.0.1
GIMP 2.8.16 2.8.16
digiKam 4.14.0 4.14.0
Amarok (music) 2.8.0 2.8.0
Dragon Player (video) 15.12.3 16.04.2

Note that gcc is not installed in the base system of either Leap or Tumbleweed, but it is indicative of what compiler was used for the entire system. The switch to gcc 6 and the resulting recompilation of essentially the entire system was one of the major changes made to Tumbleweed over the past few months.

I think this table clearly shows the heart of the difference in these distributions. Like a lot of “point release” distributions, Leap tends to stay with the same Linux kernel version through the life of the release cycle – so that is currently 4.1.x. Tumbleweed tracks kernel development very closely, so it is already running 4.6.x, and I’m sure it will pick up 4.7 shortly after its final release.

The “leading-edge” nature of Tumbleweed is also shown in the recent switch to gcc 6, while the “stable” Leap is still using gcc 4. For comparison, Fedora 24 also has 6.1.1, Debian testing (stretch) has 5.4.0, Debian stable (jessie) and LMDE have 4.9.2, Ubuntu 16.04 and Mint 18 have 5.3.1.

It would appear from the comparison table that one significant exception to the “stability first” rule on Leap is Firefox, but if you remember that the majority of Firefox updates and new versions include significant security fixes that becomes more understandable.

Stability and Recovery

The last thing I want to mention about these two distributions is actually something I have said several times along the way – stability. As a leading-edge distribution tied closely to development, Tumbleweed can occasionally have problems. Especially when major changes are under way, such as the recent switch to gcc 6, there can be problems with dependencies, interactions of packages and such. If you choose to run Tumbleweed, you should be capable of handling, recovering or at least surviving such problems. In the simplest case this might just mean sitting tight and waiting for the next batch of updates to come through, or perhaps getting updates via the CLI (zypper update), or at the other extreme it might mean picking up the latest Tumbleweed snapshot and making a fresh installation.

Because of this it is very important to keep your home directories, work and data files separate from the root filesystem. A simplistic “root filesystem only” installation is not likely to be sufficient for Tumbleweed – but then again, I would hope that anyone who is sufficiently experienced and competent to install and run Tumbleweed would never consider such a basic installation anyway.

Leap, on the other hand, should never have such stability problems. It is so extensively tested, and so conservatively updated, that such problems are extremely unlikely to make it through. While the Leap distribution doesn’t have that long of a history to look at (it’s initial release was in April 2015), I think it is safe to say that Leap is related to SuSE Linux Enterprise in much the same way that Tumbleweed is tied to factory, and one thing that SuSE Linux Enterprise is very well known for is rock solid stability.

That’s pretty much it, so I hope this brief review of the two distributions is helpful in deciding which would be right for your purposes

 

A Video on Upgrading from OpenSuSE Leap to Tumbleweed

References

Portal:Leap – openSUSE

7 things you should know about openSUSE Leap | CIO

How to upgrade openSUSE Leap to openSUSE Tumbleweed …

Upgrading OpenSuSE 13.1 to 13.2 – My Experience

Why you should choose OpenSuSE Linux

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Posted by Mario1 - 04/02/2017 at 11:24 am

Categories: Linux Sofware, Operating Systems   Tags:

Upgrading OpenSuSE 13.1 to 13.2 – My Experience

OpenSuSE 13.1 Upgrade to 13.2.

OpenSuSE Linux UpgradeI am an happy user of OpenSuSE Linux that I have installed on my Laptop PC as follows:

  • I have installed Oracle VirtualBox on Windows 8,1
  • I have installed OpenSuSE Linux within VirtualBox and soon I am going to install also Linux Mint

This approach has, in my opinion, a few advantages as follows:

  • I don’t need to reboot to work in Linux or Windows
  • I can access applications in both environments

Recently I have decided to upgrade my OpenSuSe installation from 13.1 to 13.2 and I have followed the suggestions of an article published in the Unixmen.com website that I have re-published it below for your convenience.

 

How To Upgrade To openSUSE 13.2 From openSUSE 13.1

The upgrade process took a pretty long time, but I didn’t experience any serious problem.

Sometimes some of the packages upload did not complete, but it completed OK after answering r (retry) to the error message.

However when I tried to start the upgraded version of my OpenSuSE Linux the screen window was pretty small and I had problems to find a way to expand it.

Finally I discovered the the Linux upgrade had installed the version 5 of the VirtualBox Guest modules, whereas my Oracle VirtualBox was still at version 4.

I upgraded therefore also the VirtualBox from 4.3.12 to the latest version 5.1.12 and after that everything worked correctly.

Finally everything worked correctly and I was also satisfied to notice that the combination of the new versions of Oracle VirtualBox and Linux OpenSuSE 13.2 produced better response times than the previous versions. The results were well worth the effort,

 

A Video on How to Change the Screen Resolution in VirdtualBox

References

How To Upgrade To openSUSE 42.1 From openSUSE 13.2
Side-by-side: openSuSE Tumbleweed and Leap

 

 

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Posted by Mario1 - 27/12/2016 at 1:35 pm

Categories: How to, Linux Sofware   Tags: ,

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